創意工業大廈-(第三次工業革命)

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最近看NOW,看到工業總會主席和某議員討論經濟,某議員建議政府應該興建些”創意工業大廈”給些青年人創業.這使我想到香港因為租金貴而使很多行業都不能發展或有生存的問題,如果看回美國的例子.好像HP,Apple,Yahoo,Amazon和Facebook等,他們起初創業的時期,都是零租金的,因為HP,Apple,Yahoo和Amazon都是在車庫起步的,而Facebook就是在大學宿舍裡開始.所以他們開始時的OverHeads是非常的低。而Apple就等到接到第一單生意後,想繼續擴充發展,才由車庫搬去更大的空間。

隨著第三次工業革命(A Third Industrial Revolution)的到來,個人製造(Personal Fabrication)將會像八,九十年代的個人電腦(Personal Computer)一般地普及.例如3D Printer(3D列印機), Laser Cutter(雷射切割機), CNC Router(電腦數控鑼機),  CNC Mill(電腦數控銑床), 3D Scanner(3D掃瞄器)等的技術將會越來越平宜,而精度會越來越高.從前要數百萬才能設置的機器,現在只需數千或數萬元就可擁有.加上Opensource Movement: Opensource Hardware, Opensource Software等,很多從前很貴的software,現在都有免費版本.例如2D軟件,好像Photoshop的有GIMP,像illustrator的就有INKSCAPE,Video Editing的就有Lightworks,Kdenlive,Avidemux LiVES ,就算3D軟件都有免費的,好像BlenderAutodeck123d,SketchUp,Fusion 360而CAD軟件就有TinkerCAD,LibreCAD,QCAD,FreeCAD, 等.而電子方面就有Autodesk 123D Circuits , FritzingEagleDesignSpark PCB 或 KiCAD 等. 而Adobe CS2 亦都是免費的.

由概念的產生,設計到生產都可以一條龍地進行.只要有能力將概念做成Prototype,就可以放上crowed funding網站,好像kickstarter, indiegogo 等試試市場的反應.如果反應好的話,就有資金作大量生產.重點是,要有一個好的idea,之後除了設計外,還要有能力做成第一個Prototype.例如最近在Kickstarter網站看到幾個台灣青年造的3D Printer FLUX,很快就酬到一百萬美金的資金作生產了.(台灣青年做到的,為何我們香港不能做!)當成功酬得生產所需資金後,就可以在Global Manufacturing Online / (Cloud Manufacturing)找生產商生產parts,例如MFG.com,然後再在本地組裝,然後將成品寄送到全世界。

而當年Apple Computer都是這樣起家的,做了一個prototype,再在一些電腦團體內展示和尋找有興趣的買家。接到第一單訂單後,在車庫內自行組裝第一批Apple I.由於有Apple I ,所以可以吸引投資者投資,和將投資者所投資的錢和由Apple I所賺得的錢再用來發展Apple II,和租用便大的生產空間.就這樣改變世界的Apple Computer誕生了.不同的是當時沒有crowd funding和crowd sourcing.所以,現在搞Startup的成本是很低的,就香港的情況而言,問題就只在空間了.

如果政府為了發展創意工業而真的會建這種”創意工業大廈”,情況就好像六,七十年代港英政府為了發展香港輕工業而在各區建的工業大廈一樣,應該都是有計劃的.而且興建的數量不要太小,否則就只會benefit小數的人。

致於地的問題,我看香港還有很多地未開發的,例如離開荃灣西站進入錦田,那裡就有很多一望無際的平地還未開發,新界北區亦有很多地都是沒有發展的,致於市區方面,有很多已棄致的政府物業,是長年沒有人使用的,例如長沙灣郵政局或銅鑼灣的已棄置的民安隊大樓等.可以將它們改建便可即時使用. 好的例子就好像PMQ 或者 JCCAC一樣。

而近幾年開始的Maker Movement,更是這個第三次工業革命的主角,而它們的孕育地就是現在很流行的Tech Shop, Maker Space, Hacker SpaceFab Lab等的空間.很多發明和創新都是在這些空間裡發芽和發展的.例如Square,一種插入智能電話頂部,就可刷信用咭的裝置.到現在Square公司的收入已是3Billions美元了.這些創意工業大廈內都應該要有這些空間給人發展他們的ideas.而那種好像Good Lab給社企的創業空間或好像CoCoon那種Co-Working Space都可以在這種大廈裡共存.

另外,為了鼓勵創意工業,政府可以給予有創意的年青人Grant Loan,創意好的可以給Grant,創意不是太好但又想發展的可以給Loan,情況和資助學生讀大專差不多.此外,可以學韓國一樣,大規模資助一些學生到歐美的名學院進修,學成後在那裡做兩三年工作,然後要回港工作至少兩年。將歐美的先進技術帶回香港。

現在的香港,已經不會有那些大型的跨國科技公司在港設基地了.那種畢業後希望進入些國際性的科技公司打工的可能性已經是明日黃花。現在的趨勢是”Small is Big and New.”

原寫於二零一四年十一月二十八日

PS: Opensource Movement 除了 Opensource Hardware, Opensource Software外,還有Synthetic Biology, Open Source in Education, Open Source in Healthcare等。

延伸讀閱:

Books :

1. Makers: The New Industrial Revolution   ISBN-13: 978-0307720962

2. Zero to Maker: Learn (Just Enough) to Make (Just About) Anything   ISBN-13: 978-1449356439

3. The Maker Movement Manifesto: Rules for Innovation in the New World of Crafters, Hackers, and Tinkerers   ISBN-13: 978-0071821124

4. FabLab: Of Machines, Makers, and Inventors (Cultural and Media Studies)   ISBN-13: 978-3837623826

5.  Fab : The Coming Revolution on Your Desktop – from Personal Computers to Personal Fabrication    ISBN-13: 978-0465027460

6. Steve Jobs  ISBN-13: 978-1451648539

7.  iWoz: Computer Geek to Cult Icon: How I Invented the Personal Computer, Co-Founded Apple, and Had Fun Doing It   ISBN-13: 978-0393330434

8. 自造者時代:啟動人人製造的第三次工業革命    ISBN:9789863201755

9. 3D列印的概念、原理和應用:完整認識即將改變世界的新製造科技    ISBN:9789863590521

10. 自造者的天堂 FabLab :  40個產品設計的創意與實踐   ISBN:9789863122043

11. 3D造物時代  ISBN:9789863061700

12. Democratizing Innovation  ASIN: B001C4PTLS

13. Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating And Profiting from Technology ISBN : 978-1422102831

14. 全世界在瘋什麼自造者運動?解放創新思惟,動手打造未來新世界  ISBN:9789862354414

15. FabLife:衍生自數位製造的「製作技術的未來」 ISBN:9789866076756

16. The Maker’s Manual A Practical Guide to the New Industrial Revolution
ISBN : 978-1-4571-8592-2

17. The Big Book of Maker Skills (Popular Science): Tools & Techniques for Building Great Tech Projects ISBN-13: 978-1616287269

18. 3D Printing Handbook:使用並認識用於自我表現的新工具 ISBN : 9789864050086

19. Building Open Source Hardware: DIY Manufacturing for Hackers and Makers ISBN-13: 978-0321906045

20. Open-Source Lab: How to Build Your Own Hardware and Reduce Research Costs ISBN-13: 978-0124104624

21. 自造者空間成立指南:動手做需要用到的工具、設備與技術一覽 ISBN :  9789864050024

22. The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More ISBN : 978-1401309664

Webposts :

23. 20 Years of Wired: Maker movement

24. 3-D Printing Spurs a Manufacturing Revolution

25. Back to making stuff

26. ON OPEN SOURCE, OPEN HARDWARE AND OPEN MANUFACTURING

27. The Emergence of Open Design and Open Manufacturing

28. “Make 25: Microcontrollers and Arduino”.

29. www.makers-revolution.com

30. Maker Movement Infograph

31. Autodesk 迎接手作時代

32. The rise of the frugal economy

33. PCH Founder: How I’ll Turn Fab.com into the Netflix of Design

34. Chinese Government to Put 3D Printers in All 400,000 Elementary Schools by Next Year

35. 李克強Love Maker

36. 前人不播種,台灣自造者難豐收

37. With a new experimental space in Boston, Autodesk wants to bring manufacturing back to cities

38. Enabling Makers To Create “The Next Big Thing”

39. Maker Movement: Hardware Startups are Key to Creative Economy’ by Business Korea

40. 自造者運動宣言(林雪瑩)

41. Designing and Making: What Could Change in Design Schools. A First Systemic Overview of Makers in Italy and Their Educational Contexts

Production and distribution firm :

42. PCH

Paper :

43. Ed Tech and the Maker Movement or ASTRA-EdTech-maker-movement

Video :

44. America President Obama Remarks at TechShop

45. Having More, Using Less: Max Gunawan at TEDxGoldenGatePark

46. Fab Lab: How to Make (Almost) Anything

47. Neil Gershenfeld: The beckoning promise of personal fabrication

48. BookTV: Chris Anderson, “Makers: The New Industrial Revolution”

49. Chris Anderson on the Democratisation of Manufacturing, Design and Technology

50. Authors@Google: Chris Anderson

51. TechShop: An Inventor’s Paradise in San Francisco

52. Make Your Designs Come Alive at TechShop Detroit

53. Neil Gershenfeld: “The Third Digital Revolution” – Solid 2014 Keynote

54. America’s most important startup? Techshop

55. MakerCon

56. TED : The next manufacturing revolution is here

Conference :

57. Fab 11 “Making: Impact” Press Conference

58. Fab11.org

59. FabLearn

Movie :

60. Maker Movie or http://makerthemovie.com/

61. Steve Jobs : http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2357129/

Examples (Kickstarter or Indiegogo Projects) :

62. 2個美國人設計及製造的Question Block Lamp  or Kickstarter : 1,930 backers pledged US$131,479

63. 5個台灣青年製作的3d printer FLUX : 2,707 backers pledged US$1,641,075

64. 5個大陸內地青年製作的機械臂 uArm : 1,263 backers pledged US$251,887

65. 2個港人兄弟製作的咖啡機 Arist : 2,519 backers pledged US$845,139

66. 2個港人設計的單車頭盔 : Lumos – A Next Generation Bicycle Helmet 6,072 backers pledged US$809,551

67. 1個港人設計及製造的3D Printer : TinyBoy 2 – 3D Printer for Education110 backers pledged US$30,739

68.港人設計的手錶 : Anicorn Series K452 Watches : 419 backers pledged US$153,607 / 該手錶的故事

69. 港人設計的 New Oculus Rift Facial Interfaces with Replacement Foam Pads : 619 backers pledged €31,838

70. 兩個香港青年設計的木檯 : 18秒嵌好工作枱 本地設計  , Butterply Desk – CNC Crafted Multifunctional Plywood Desk 177 backers pledged $56,892

71. 六個港人設計的全天候耳機 : Want Music When You Swimming? Check Waveport Now Only $49  1,126 backers pledged $81,423

72. 港人設計及製造的 : Orbit 360: A better way to take spherical panoramas  1,109 backers pledged $60,955

73. 港人設計及製造的 : The Best Cashmere / Mercerised Wool StoleWith Armhole : 8 backers pledged HK$ 9,647 to help bring this project to life.

74. 港人設計的DLP 3d printer : Affordable DLP 3D Printer – Amazing 2K Resolution :

HK$ 343,880,   pledged of HK$ 58,000 goal, 57 backers

75. 港人設計的Card Game : Bicycle Lunar,Mars,Neptune Collection Playing Cards,Gift

76. 港人設計的Card Game : Realms Playing Cards

77. 四個港人設計的Card Game : Crossroads of Heroes

78. 港人設計的Card Game : Bicycle Constellation Collection Playing Cards,Gift ArtPoker

79. 四個港人設計的 Smartphone Controlled Handheld Light Painting $29

80. 香港設計的 RES: Non-stop Hi-Res Music while Wireless Charging

81. 一個美國人設計的 First 3D printed San Francisco ‘Day & Night’ cityscape watch

or Kickstarter: 100 backers pledged US$25,663

82. 5個美國人設計及製造的 BoXZY Rapid-Change FabLab: Mill, Laser Engraver, 3D Printer : 630 backers pledged US$1,193,255

83. 4 個美國人設計及製造的5軸CNC銑床 Pocket NC – The first 5 axis CNC mill for your desktop.  or : 280 backers pledged $355,833    http://www.pocketnc.com/blog/   ,   How did pocket NC survive and thrive

84. 14歲發明家靠充電式Arduino集資35,000美元 or Qduino Mini in Kickstarter : 832 backers pledged US$45,209

Maker Education :

85. Design, Make and Play : http://dmp.nysci.org/

86. http://www.maker-kid.com/

87. Report from Ashoka and LEGO about the role of play in education.

88. FabAcademy.org

89. Autodesk Launches Project Ignite: A 3D Design, Printing & Maker’s Learning Platform For All Ages

90. Designing And Making What Could Change In Design Schools.

91. School’s In Session: 39 Lessons from the Make: Education Forum

92. Meaningful Making: Projects and Inspirations for FabLabs and Makerspaces

Product made in Techshop or MakerSpace:

93. Square : How Square Earned a $3 Billion Valuation  / 

Square Was Originally Called “Squirrel”, Here’s The Story From Jack Dorsey

94. Triple Threat: BoXZY Puts Printing, Milling, and Lasers in One Small Box or Kickstarter

89. 3Doodler Creator Shares His Experience from Makerspace to Market or Kickstarter 3Doodler: The World’s First 3D Printing Pen

95. Embrace

Crowdfunding :

Software :

96. How and Why We’re Building Fusion by Autodesk CEO Carl Bass

MakerSpace :

97. High School Maker Space Set-up

98. Makerspace-Playbook

99. Worlds of Making: Best Practices for Establishing a Makerspace for Your School   ISBN-13: 978-1483382821

100. Make Space: How to Set the Stage for Creative Collaboration    ISBN-13: 978-1118143728

101. Maker Space (Rachel Peng Book 2)   ASIN: B00IQILU4S

102. School Library Makerspaces: Grades 6-12    ISBN-13: 978-1610694940

103. Maker Spaces   ISBN-13: 978-1849756198

104. 如何打造Makerspace

105. Hong Kong MakerSpace , Hacker Space and Fablab:

MakerBay : http://www.makerbay.org

Dim Sum Labs : http://www.dimsumlabs.com

Dimension Plus : http://dimensionplus.co  / http://labbydimensionplus.co/hk/

Makerhive : http://makerhive.com.hk/

106. 台灣的Maker Space

http://www.makezine.com.tw/makerspace.html

107. FabLab in the worldhttp://www.fabfoundation.org/index.php/fab-labs/index.html

108. TechShop :

LA TechShop Floor Plan (Click to see the large image)

LA TechShop Floor Plan

109 . America’s most important startup? Techshop

110. The starting point of all great companies

screenshot_2016-11-08-12-26-45

111. 辦FabLab所需要的書單(2012):

Nature of Mathematical Modeling”, ISBN-10: 0521570956

The Physics of Information Technology”, ISBN-10: 0521580447

Fab: The Coming Revolution on Your Desktop—from Personal Computers to Personal Fabrication”, ISBN-10: 0465027466

Programming and Customizing the AVR Microcomputer”, Dhananjay Gradre ISBN:007134666X

Practical Electronics for Inventors”, Paul Scherz ISBN:0070580782

Electric Motors and Their Controls: An Introduction”, Tak Kenjo ISBN:0198562403

Electric Motors and Control Techniques”, Irving M. Gottleib ISBN:0070240124

Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessor Systems”, Stuart Ball ISBN:0750677236

Linux Cookbook”, Carla Schroder ISBN:0596006403

AVR: An Introductory Course”, John Morton ISBN:0750656352

Handbook of Modern Sensors: Physics, Designs and Applications”, Jacob Fraden ISBN:0387007504

Precision Machine Design”, Alexander Slocum ISBN:0872634922

The Art of Electronics”, Paul Horowitz, Winfield Hill ISBN:0521370957

Learning Python, Second Edition”, Mark Lutz, David Ascher ISBN:0596002815

Python in a Nutshell”, Alex Martelli ISBN:0596001886

The Offical Blender 2.3 Guide: Free 3D Creation Guide for Modeling, Animation and Redering”, Ton Roosendahl, Stefano Selleri ISBN:1593270410

Building Scientific Apparatus”, John Moore, et al. ISBN:0813340063

The Electronics Handbook”, Jerry C. Whittaker ISBN:0849383455

Linux for Dummies” ISBN:0764579371

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